Iran's Economy

 

Iran's economy is a non-homogeneous mixture of state ownership of large enterprises, village based farming, low tech private manufacturing, and small-scale private trading.  In many areas the government directly competes with the private sectors.
Pertinent Data:
GDP ......................................... 
GDP real growth rate ................ 
GDP per capita ......................... 
GDP composition by sector: 
   Agriculture .............................. 
   Industry .................................. 
   Services ................................. 
Inflation rate (consumer prices) ..
$323.5 billion (1995 est.) 
-2% (1995 est.) 
$4,700 (1995 est.) 

21% 
37% 
42% (1994 est.) 
60% (1995 est.) 

 
Work Force:
Labor force ............................ 
   By occupation ..................... 
   note .................................... 
Unemployment rate ................
15.4 million 
agriculture 33%, manufacturing 21% 
shortage of skilled labor (1988 est.) 
over 30% (1995 est.) 
Education: (1994 est.) 

Literacy ................................. 
total population ...................... 
male ...................................... 
female ....................................

age 15 and over can read and write 
72.1% 
78.4% 
65.8%
Health:  (1992)

Infant mortality rate ................ 
Life expectancy .....................

64/1,000 
65 years
 
Budget: 
Revenues ........................................... 
Expenditures: ..................................... 
Industries: .......................................... 

Industrial production growth rate ....... 
Exchange rate ...................................

$NA 
$NA, including capital expenditures of $NA 
materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating, armaments 
4.3% (1994 est.) 
(1994, unofficial): 2,600 rials= $U.S. 
(1997, unofficial): 4750 rials= $U.S.
 
Debt:

Iran has faced increasingly severe financial difficulties since mid-1992 due to an import surge that began in 1989. Iran was unable to meet its obligations on short-term debt in 1993; by the end of the year, it was $8- $9 billion in arrears on payments. Early in 1994, estimates of Iran's debt ranged from $16 billion to $30 billion.  At yearend 1994, Iran rescheduled $12 billion in debt. Iran's financial situation remained tight in 1996 because the bulk of payments due under its rescheduling agreements in 1993-94 became due. 

Exports:  
Amount ...............  $18 billion (f.o.b., 1994 est.) 
Commodities .......  petroleum 85%, carpets, fruits, nuts, hides, iron, steel. Oil accounts for about 85%-90% of Iran's exports.  In 1993, Iran's OPEC quota was about 3.4 million barrels per day, and estimated production was 3.5 million barrels per day. 
Partners .............. Japan, Italy, France, Netherlands, Belgium/Luxembourg, Spain, and Germany 
Imports:   
Amount .............. $13 billion (c.i.f., 1994 est.) 
Commodities ...... machinery, military supplies, metal works, food, pharmaceuticals, technical services, refined oil products 
Partners ............. Germany, Japan, Italy, UK, France, UAE
Agriculture:
Products......... wheat, rice, other grains, sugar beets, fruits, nuts, cotton; dairy products, wool; caviar, not self-sufficient in food.
Open market in Sarri 
Industry:
 Types ...........  petroleum, petrochemicals, textiles, cement and building materials, food processing (particularly sugar refining and vegetable oil production), metal fabricating (steel and copper). 

 
 
 
Tehran Oil Refinery
Electricity:
Capacity ................................. 
Production ............................. 
Consumption per capita ..........
19,080,000 kW 
50.8 billion kWh 
745 kWh (1993)

 
  Daz Dam
Natural resources:
Type ........................ Petroleum, natural gas, and some mineral deposits. 
 
Transportation:
Railways:

Total ........................ 
Broad gauge ............ 
Standard gauge ........

5,093 km 
96 km 1.676-m gauge 
 4,997 km 1.432-m gauge (146 km electrified) (1995)
 

 
Highways: 

Total ....................... 
Paved .................... 
Unpaved .................

140,200 km 
42,700 km 
97,500 km (1995 est.)
 
Waterways:
Detail .............. 904 km; the Arvand Rud is usually navigable by maritime traffic. About 130 km; channel has been dredged to 3 m and is in use. 
 
Ports:
Detail ............. Abadan (largely destroyed in fighting during 1980-88 war), Ahvaz, Bandar Beheshti, Bandar-e 'Abbas, Bandar-e Anzali, Bandar-e Bushehr, Bandar-e Khomeyni, Bandar-e Mah Shahr, Bandar-e Torkeman, Jazireh-ye Khark, Jazireh-ye Lavan, Jazireh-ye Sirri, Khorramshahr (limited operation since November 1992), Now Shahr
 
 Passenger boat at Bandar Abbas
Merchant marine:
Total ..................... 
Ships by type ........
130 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,791,892 GRT/4,891,615 DWT 
bulk 47, cargo 41, chemical tanker 5, combination bulk 2, liquefied gas tanker 1, multifunction large-load carrier 1, oil tanker 19, refrigerated cargo 3, roll-on/roll-off cargo 9, short-sea passenger 1, specialized tanker 1 (1995 est.) 
 
Airports:
Total ................. 
(1995 est.) 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 Heliports ..........

212 with paved runways over 3 047 m 
30 with paved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m 
11 with paved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m 
31 with paved runways 914 to 1 523 m 
17 with paved runways under 914 m 
22 with unpaved runways over 3 047 m 
1 with unpaved runways 2 438 to 3 047 m 
2 with unpaved runways 1 524 to 2 437 m 
10 with unpaved runways 914 to 1 523 m 

12 (1995 est.)

 
International Mehrabad Airport
Pipelines:
Crude oil ......................... 
Petroleum products ......... 
Natural gas ......................
 5,900 km 
3,900 km 
4,550 km
 
Communications: 
 
Telephones .............................. 3.02 million (1992 est.) 
Telephone system
  • Domestic .......................
microwave radio relay extends throughout country; system centered in Tehran 
satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat (Indian Ocean Region); 
  • International ...................
HF radio and microwave radio relay to Turkey, Pakistan, Syria, Kuwait, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; submarine fiber-optic cable to UAE 
Radio broadcast stations .......... AM 77, FM 3, shortwave 0 
Radios 14.3 million (1992 est.)
Television broadcast stations .... 28
Televisions ............................... 3.9 million (1992 est.)
   
 

 

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