Absolute sovereignty over the world and man belongs to God, and it is
He Who has made man master of his own social destiny. No one can deprive
man of this divine right, nor subordinate it to the vested interests of
a particular individual or group. The people are to exercise this divine
right in the manner specified in the following articles.
The powers of government in the Islamic Republic are vested in the legislature,
the judiciary, and the executive powers, functioning under the supervision
of the absolute wilayat al-'amr and the leadership of the Ummah, in accordance
with the forthcoming articles of this Constitution. These powers are independent
of each other.
The function of the legislature are to be exercised through the Islamic
Consultative Assembly, consisting of the elected representatives of the
people. Legislation approved by this body, after going through the stages
specified in the articles below, is communicated to the executive and the
judiciary for implementation.
In extremely important economic, political, social, and cultural matters,
the function of the legislature may be exercised through direct recourse
to popular vote through a referendum. Any request for such direct recourse
to public opinion must be approved by two-thirds of the members of the
Islamic Consultative Assembly.
The functions of the executive, except in the matters that are directly
placed under the jurisdiction of the Leadership by the Constitution, are
to be exercised by the president and the ministers.
the function of the judiciary are to be performed by courts of justice, which are to be formed in accordance with the criteria of Islam, and are vested with the authority to examine and settle lawsuits, protect the rights of the public, dispense and enact justice, and implement the Divine limits [al-hudud al-Ilahiyyah].