(Source: Iran Year Book, 1996)
|PRESIDENT The second highest authority next to the leader is the president. The constitution of 1979 saw the president as the head of the executive but at the same time as the coordinator of the three branches of the state. This placed him above all three of them.
The President is directly elected by people for a term of four years and his re-election for a successive term is permitted only once. According to the Constitution, he must possess the following qualifications: Iranian origin and nationality, administrative and managerial skills, piety and trustworthiness, and a belief in the Islamic Republic’s fundamental principles and the official religion of the country.
The President signs and supervises the implementation of laws passed by the Majles, signs treaties and other international agreements ratified by the Majles, receives the credentials of foreign ambassadors, endorses those of Iranian ambassadors sent abroad and presides over the National Security Council. His responsibilities also include the administration of the country’s budget and development plans ratified by the Majles.
Either the President or the First Vice President presides over the meetings of the Cabinet.
The Cabinet consists of the Ministers for
Crusade for Construction (Jihad Sazandegi),
Culture and Higher Education,
Economy and Finance,
Health and Medical Education,
Housing and Urban Development,
Islamic Guidance and Culture,
Labor and Social Affairs,
Mines and Metals,
Posts Telephones & Telegraphs,
Roads and Transport.The President also has seven aids in charge of Planning and Budget Organization, the Organization of Administrative and Employment Affairs, Atomic Energy Organization, Civil Service and Social Security, the Environmental Affairs Organization, the Executive Affairs Organizations, and the Physical Training Organization.The prime minister was the actual head of the executive. According to the constitution of 1979, he should be nominated by the president and had to win a vote of confidence from the Majlis. Ministers were nominated by the prime minister and approved by the president. Upon approval by the latter, ministers appeared before the Majlis to receive a vote of confidence.
Ministers were directly accountable to the Majlis. The prime minister was responsible for all the actions taken by his ministers, and each individual minister was responsible for all measures and decisions are taken by the cabinet. Members of parliament might table motions of no confidence in the cabinet as a whole or in individual ministers (Articles 133-137 of the constitution).
The most important modification of the constitutional amendment in regard of the executive is the abolition of the office of prime minister. The president has been given all the powers that the prime minister had under the constitution. The president will name ministers, introduce them to the Majlis to obtain votes of confidence, and ask for a vote of confidence for his government from the Majlis on controversial issues. Unlike the prime minister, however, he does not have to receive a vote of confidence before forming a government, because he will be elected by the direct vote of the people. The president, however, faces the same checks as the prime minister.
In addition to ministers, the president may also be asked questions or face a vote of non-confidence. One-quarter of all members of Majlis may table a question to the president, who will have to answer it in the house. Anyone member may put questions to any minister of his responsibilities. The motion of non-confidence in ministers must be signed by 10 members of Majlis. Ministers who fail to win a vote of confidence will be dismissed and may not be members of the government immediately formed afterward. To enable a motion of non-confidence in the president, endorsement of one-third of members is required. A majority of two-thirds is needed to dismiss the president with a vote of non-confidence.
The president is no longer required to coordinate the Relations of the three powers of the state as the constitution earlier required. That is a task of the leader. He will have several deputies, and His vice-president will assume his tasks in his absence, upon his death or resignation, or illness for more than two months, or in any other case. The leader’s consent is essential for this. If necessary, the vice president is required to arrange for a presidential election within 50 days of assuming office.
The plan and budget ministry have been abolished as a ministry, and the responsibility for it as well as the Civil Employment and Administrative Affairs Organization has been entrusted to the president. The ministry had replaced the plan and budget Organization, which had been under the direct control of the prime minister in 1985. This came about because members of Majlis were not allowed to put questions to the prime minister. But they could demand answers from the plan and budget minister.
INSTITUTIONS ADMINISTERED BY THE PRESIDENT
The President’s Office consists of the Secretariat, advisors, and deputies to the president. After the revolution, documents and files of the former regime are disbanded National Security and Intelligence Organization, which was affiliated to the Prime Minister’s Office were taken over. A special department was assigned to take charge of those files. That department is still functioning under the president.
Plan and Budget Organization (Sazeman-e Barnameh va Budgeh) which is in charge of: Statistics Center of Iran
National Cartography Center
Iranian Data Processing Company
Remote Assessment Center (satellites application project)Civil Employment and Administrative Affairs Organization (Sazeman-e Moor Estekhdami va Edari Keshvar) is assigned to coordinate government organizations, to frame rules and regulations for employment of civil servants and to draw up organizational charts for newly established organizations.
State Management Training Center of Iran (Sazeman-e Amoozesh Modiriat Sanati Iran)
National Documents Organization of Iran (Sazeman-e Assnad-e Melli Iran) files all government documents.
Civil Retirement Organization (Sazeman-e Bazneshastegi Keshvari)
Physical Education Organization (Sazeman-e Tarbiat Badani)
Environmental Protection Organization (Sazeman-e Hefz-e Mohit-e Zist)
Atomic Energy Organization (Sazeman-e Energy Atomi)MINISTRIES AND THEIR AFFILIATES– Agriculture (Vezarat-e Keshavarzi): A large number of research and other centers operate under the authority of this ministry. The most important of them are:
National Forests and Pastures Organization
Plants Conservation Organization
Seeds and Saplings Improvement and Provision Research Institute
Pests and Phytopathology Research Institute
Soil and Water Research Institute
Iranian Milk Industries Company
Haft Tappeh Sugar Cane Agro-Industry Company
National Meat Company
Silk Worm Breeding Promotion and Research Company.
Construction Crusade (Jahad-e Sazandegi) was established initially as a revolutionary institution to coordinate popular measures for reconstruction of rural areas but was transformed into a ministry in 1983. It is concerned with rural development, solving problems of nomadic groups, helping with livestock breeding, solving problems of farmers and rural people and promoting rural industries, etc.Affiliates: Fisheries Company (Shilat).– Commerce (Vezarat-e Bazargani) has the following affiliates: Central Cooperative Organization
Exports Promotion Center
Organization for Protection of Consumers and Producers (OPCP)
Trading Services Promotion Organization
The Iranian State Trading Company
The Warehousing & Warehouse Construction Company
Iranian Insurance Company
Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines.– Culture and Higher Education (Vezarat Farhang va Amoozesh Aali) supervises the following research centers: Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran
Scientific and Cultural Publications Center
Cultural Studies and Research Institute
Materials and Power Application and Properties Research Center– Culture and Islamic Guidance (Vezarat Farhang va Ershad-e Islami)has the following affiliates: Hajj, Endowments and Charity Affairs Organization
Islamic Republic News Agency (IRNA)
Tourism Centers Organization.– Defense (Vezarat-e Defa) runs: Etka Factories Company, which supplies goods to the army personnel
Fakhr-e Iran Knitting and Weaving Company
Machine Made Bread Factories Company
Defense Industry Organization, which manufactures armaments
Electronic Industries Company, with a sub-affiliate company named Easiran Company
Iranian Aircraft Industries Company
Iranian Helicopter Support and Renovation Company
Niroo Battery Manufacturing Company.– Economic Affairs and Finance (Vezarat Omoor Eqtessadi va Daraie) has several affiliates: Iranian Customs Administration
Investment and Economic and Technological Aid Organization of Iran
The Financial Organization for Expansion of Proprietorship of Production Units
The Electronic Calculators Services Corporation
Iranian Central Insurance Agency
National Iranian Public and Customs Warehouses Company
Banks including the Central Bank of Iran, Ostan Banks, Bank Tejarat, Bank Sepah, Bank Saderat, Bank of Industry and Mine, Bank of Agriculture, Bank Melli, Housing Bank, Bank Mellat.– Education (Vezarat-e Ammoozesh va Parvaresh) supervises: The Center for the Intellectual Development of Children & Young Adults
The Guardians and Instructors Society
The Educational Planning and Research Organization
The National Organization for Renovation and Equipping Schools.– Energy (Vezarat-e Niroo) has several affiliates: Water Resources Research Institute
Water Engineering Services Company (Mohab)
Dam Construction & Irrigation Installations Company (Sabir)
Power Engineering Services Company (Mashanir)
National Power Generation & Transmission Company (Tavanir)
Iranian Electrical Power Equipment Manufacturing & Provision Company (Satkab)
Regional Water Boards
Regional Electricity Boards.– Foreign Affairs (Vezarat-e Omoor Kharejeh): International Relations College, established in 1983, trains diplomats for the ministry
The Institute for Political and International Studies is the ministry’s think-tank.– Health and Medical Education (Vezarat-e Behdasht, Darman va Amoozesh Pezeshki) has the following affiliates:Pasteur Institute as a research center
Institute of Nutrition Sciences and Food Industry
Blood Transfusion Organization
Social Welfare Organization
The National Pharmaceutical Company
Social Security Organization
Workers’ Welfare Bank
Red Crescent Society
Regional health offices in Tehran and other cities and towns.
Housing and Urban Development (Vezarat-e Maskan va Shahr Sazi) have the following affiliates:
Urban Lands Organization
Iranian Housing Construction Factories Company
Housing and Building Research Center.– Industry (Vezarat-e Sanaye) exerts control over industries through the following bodies: National Iranian Industries Organization (NIIO)
Institute of Standards and Industrial Research of Iran
The Iranian Tobacco Monopoly, and a few others.
Industries Development and Renovation Organization (IDRO)– Intelligence (Vezarat-e Ettela’at) was established in 1983 and was put in charge of national security, counter-intelligence and handing of outlawed political groups. It does not have any affiliates.– Interior (Vezarat-e Keshvar) is in charge of the following organizations:
State Organization for Personal Status Registration
Law Enforcement (Police)– Islamic Revolution Guards (Vezarat-e Sepah Pasdaran-e Enqelab-e Islamic) is in charge of the paramilitary national Mobilization of the Oppressed (Baseej-e Mostazafan) Organization.– Justice (Vezarat Dadgostari) supervises:
State Notarial Department for Deeds and Real Estate
Official Gazette Company
Forensic Medicine Department
Institute of Experts of Justice Administration.– Labour and Social Affairs (Vezarat Kar va Omoor Ejetma’i) oversees: Professional and Technical Training Organization
Labour and Social Security Institute
Foundation for the Imposed War Refugees.– Mines and Metals (Vezarat-e Ma’adan va Felezzat) is in charge of: National Geology Organization
National Iranian Mines and Metal Smelting Company
National Iranian Steel Company
National Iranian Mining Explorations Company
National Iranian Copper Industries Company
National Iranian Lead and Zinc Company– Oil (Vezarat-e Naft) has several affiliated companies: National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC)
National Iranian Gas Company (NIGC)
National Iranian Petrochemical Company (NIPC)
Iranian Offshore Oil Company (IOOC)
National Iranian Drilling Company (NIDC)
National Iranian Tanker Company (NITC)
Kala Company Ltd.
Ahvaz Pipe Mills.– Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones (Vezarat-e Post, Telegraph va Telephone) runs: Telecommunications Company of Iran
Telephones Company– Roads & Transport (Vezarat-e Raah va Tarabari) has the following affiliates: Railways of the Islamic Republic of Iran
Ports and Shipping Organization
Civil Aviation Organization
Islamic Republic of Iran Airline (Iran Air)
National Aviation Services Company (Asseman)
National Meteorology Organization
Roads Safety Equipment Production Company
Road Construction & Maintenance Machinery & Equipment Procurement Company
Iranian Roads Development Organization
Soil Technical and Mechanical Laboratory
Irano-Russia Transportation Company.